Italy

The historic center of Siena has been declared by UNESCO a World Heritage Site. It is one of the nation's most visited tourist attractions, with over 163,000 international arrivals in 2008. Siena is famous for its cuisine, art, museums, medieval cityscape and the Palio, a horse race held twice a year. The Siena Cathedral (Duomo), begun in the 12th century, is a masterpiece of Italian Romanesque–Gothic architecture. Its main façade was completed in 1380. The original massive basilica, the largest then in the world, with, as was customary, an east-west nave. However, the scarcity of funds, in part due to war and plague, truncated the project, and the Sienese created a subdued version from the original plan's north-south transept. The east wall of the abandoned original folly of a nave still stands; through an internal staircase, visitors can climb for a grand view of the city.

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Pisa is a city and comune in Tuscany, central Italy, straddling the Arno just before it empties into the Ligurian Sea. It is the capital city of the Province of Pisa. Although Pisa is known worldwide for its leaning tower, the city contains more than 20 other historic churches, several medieval palaces, and various bridges across the Arno. Much of the city's architecture was financed from its history as one of the Italian maritime republics. The city is also home of the University of Pisa, which has a history going back to the 12th century and also has the Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa, founded by Napoleon in 1810, and its offshoot, the Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, as the best-sanctioned Superior Graduate Schools in Italy.

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Trieste is a beautiful city and a seaport in northeastern Italy. It is situated towards the end of a narrow strip of Italian territory lying between the Adriatic Sea and Slovenia, which lies approximately 10–15 km (6.2–9.3 mi) south and east of the city. Croatia is some 30 km (19 mi) to the south. Trieste is located at the head of the Gulf of Trieste and throughout history, it has been influenced by its location at the crossroads of Latin, Slavic, and Germanic cultures. Trieste was one of the oldest parts of the Habsburg Monarchy, belonging to it from 1382 until 1918. In the 19th century, the monarchy was one of the Great Powers of Europe and Trieste was its most important seaport. As a prosperous seaport in the Mediterranean region, Trieste became the fourth largest city of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. In the fin de siècle period at the end of the 19th century, it emerged as an important hub for literature and music. Trieste underwent an economic revival during the 1930s, and Trieste was an important spot in the struggle between the Eastern and Western blocs after the Second World War.

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Turin is the capital of Piedmont and is known for the refinement of its architecture and its cuisine. The Alps rise to the north-west of the city. Sumptuous baroque buildings and old cafés flank the avenues and grand squares of Turin, such as Piazza Castello and Piazza San Carlo. Nearby is the high spire of the Mole Antonelliana, from the 19th century, which hosts the interactive exhibitions of the National Cinema Museum. Turin is the capital of Piedmont and is known for the refinement of its architecture and its cuisine. The Alps rise to the north-west of the city. Sumptuous baroque buildings and old cafés flank the avenues and grand squares of Turin, such as Piazza Castello and Piazza San Carlo. Nearby is the high spire of the Mole Antonelliana, from the 19th century, which hosts the interactive exhibitions of the National Cinema Museum. The Egyptian Museum, second to that of the Cairo, is worth a visit, as well as the royal palaces of the Savoy Family, especially the Reggia of Venaria Reale.

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Guglielmo Marconi, Premio Nobel per la Fisica nel 1909, effettuò la prima trasmissione radiotelegrafica effettuata il 1903 con un trasmettitore a scintilla. Marconi individuò nella zona di Coltano tra Pisa e Livorno il luogo adatto per costruire la prima stazione radio italiana a onde lunghe. Coloro che arrivando da Livorno e da Pisa entrano nel territorio di Coltano, si trovano davanti a dimensioni senza spazio e senza tempo con l’impressione di giungere in un altro pianeta, un piccolo borgo ricco di storia e circondato da un ambiente dove l’uomo non ha completamente vinto sulla natura. Le origini di Coltano si perdono nel tempo. Solamente con l’arrivo dei Granduchi Medicei iniziò quel percorso che in molti decenni portò al miglioramento del territorio, soprattutto con la costruzione della Villa Medicea. Oggi necessita di essere valorizzato aiutando la Proloco di Coltano che fa già tantissimo. Guglielmo Marconi, Nobel Prize in Physics in 1909, did the first radiotelegraph transmission in 1903 with a spark transmitter. Marconi spotted  Coltano area between Pisa and Livorno, as the place to build the first Italian radio station longwave. Those who are coming from Livorno and Pisa entering the territory of Coltano nowaday,found themselves without space and time with the impression of arriving on another planet. Coltano, a small town rich in history and surrounded by an environment where man it has not completely won over nature. The Coltano origins are lost in time. Only with the arrival of the Medici Grand Dukes began the journey that in many decades led to the improvement of the territory, especially with the construction of the Villa Medici. Today needs to be enhanced by helping Proloco Coltan that is already doing a lot.

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Matera is a city located on a rocky outcrop in Basilicata, in southern Italy. It includes the area of the Sassi, a complex of Cave Houses excavated in the mountain. Evacuated in 1952 because of the poor conditions of life, the Sassi now host museums such as the Casa Grotta di Vico Solitario, with antique furniture and handicrafts. One of the nearby rupestrian churches is Santa Lucia alle Malve, with 13th-century frescoes.

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Genoa is an amazing port city and is the capital of the Liguria region. It is known for its important role in maritime trade over many centuries. In the historic center is the Cathedral of San Lorenzo, in Romanesque style with a black and white striped façade and frescoed interiors. Narrow streets lead to monumental squares like the Piazza de Ferrari, with its characteristic bronze fountain and the Carlo Felice opera house. It has the biggest ancient city center still remained as it eas through the centuries. Famous all over the world for its handmade focaccia.

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Roma caput mundi, a city of a thousand faces. Rome is the political capital of Italy, but also the center of Christianity and houses within its territory the city-state of the Vatican. The seat of the papacy, its structure today is the result of numerous urban and architectural interventions that have been stratified over the millennia. in Rome imperial is surely the best known. The splendor of antiquity revives throughout the capital: from the Colosseum to the Imperial Fora, the Domus Aurea, the Pantheon and the Circus Maximus. The capital is also a lively city that offers its visitors a multitude of cultural events and museums.

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Florence, the capital of Tuscany, hosts many masterpieces of Renaissance art and architecture. One of the most famous places is the Duomo, the cathedral with a tiled dome designed by Brunelleschi and Giotto's bell tower. The Accademia Gallery exhibits the sculpture of Michelangelo's David while in the Uffizi Gallery there is Botticelli's Birth of Venus and the Annunciation by Leonardo da Vinci.

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Elegant, precious, inimitable, fun, romantic: this is Venice, the gem of the Venetian and Italian tourism scene, where churches, palaces, ancient bridges, monuments, and squares tell the artistic and cultural vivacity that has marked and still marks the history of this city. The heart of Venice is the splendid Piazza San Marco, the most elegant living room in Europe, surrounded by works of unquestionable value: the imposing bell tower and the Basilica with its five portals and the decorations of marble and mosaics that anticipate the splendor and the wealth of interiors. Also the museums, the Biennale of Architecture, the gondolas and the ancient caffè Florian, everything is worth a visit.

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